Mounting opposition from environmentalists have delayed a number of oil industry projects, here are the top four.
1) Keystone XL
Keystone XL is a proposed 1,897-kilometre pipeline that would carry crude oil from Hardisty, Alta., to Steele City, Neb., where it would link up with other pipelines that run to the Gulf Coast and the U.S. Midwest.
The pipeline would carry an average of 830,000 barrels of oil per day to refineries in the Midwest and the Gulf Coast.
TransCanada would develop the US$5.4-billion pipeline.
While American President Barrack Obama has refused to make a decision on the mega project (his approval is needed because the pipeline crosses the border), the Republicans are vowing to push it through in 2015.
Northern Gateway is a proposed 1,177-kilometre twin pipeline that would carry diluted bitumen from Alberta to Kitimat, British Columbia, where it would be shipped overseas by oil tankers.
One pipeline would carry an average of 525,000 barrels a day of petroleum products west to Kitimat. The other pipeline would carry a daily average of 193,000 barrels of natural-gas condensate — used to dilute oilsands bitumen — east to Bruderheim, Alta., just north of Edmonton.
Calgary-based Enbridge Inc. would develop the $6.5-billion pipeline.
In December 2013, a federal joint review panel recommended approval of the project, subject to 209 conditions.
3) Energy East
The $12-billion, 4,600-kilometre Energy East pipeline would carry 1.1-million barrels of crude oil per day from Alberta and Saskatchewan to refineries in eastern Canada.
The project would involve converting an existing natural gas pipeline to oil, then building new lines in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, eastern Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick to extend the existing line. It would require construction of two marine facilities, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence near Quebec City and in Saint John, N.B.
Several environmental groups have vowed to fight the pipeline, raising concerns over the ecological harm that would result from a spill as well the project’s enabling role in oil sands growth.
4) Trans Mountain pipeline
Kinder Morgan’s proposed $5.4-billion expansion of its Trans Mountain pipeline would nearly triple its capacity to ship petroleum products to 890,000 barrels a day along a 1,000-kilometre route to Burnaby.
The pipeline would enable crude exports to Asia through the Vancouver area, but opponents of the Trans Mountain project have warned of the potential impact of a spill, either from the pipeline itself or from increased tanker traffic.
The National Energy Board is expected to deliver its final report in January 2016.
(Source: Blackburn News & Canadian Press)